Hartford Seminary conducted a follow-up study to a previous publication Women of the Cloth (1983). This study sought to re-examine the position of women clergy in the 21st century. Barbara Zikmund and her team of researchers developed a detailed questionnaire sent to clergy women and men across the country. The results yielded a wealth of new information that Zikmund and her team developed into scholarly presentations as well as a popular manuscript. Initial drafts of the manuscript were discussed and revised at numerous consultations and professional meetings. The final book is entitled, Clergy Women: An Uphill Calling.