Hartford Seminary conducted a follow-up study to a previous publication, Women of the Cloth (1983). This study assessed the content of Women of the Cloth and identified areas in the publication that warranted replication. Several detailed analyses and multiple consultations revealed that much had changed in the field of clergywomen in the last decade. Barbara Zikmmund and her team of researchers concluded that it was necessary to gather new data and continue further study about ordained women. Zikmmund then developed a new proposal to enable her and her team to carry out further assessment of clergywomen. See additional grants from Hartford Seminary for studies in this genre.