In cooperation with Samford University, Penny Long Marler and C. Kirk Hadaway conducted research on the gap between self-reported and objectively measured levels of church membership and attendance. Marler and Hadaway’s study involved three major activities. 1) They gathered and analyzed data on church membership and attendance in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. 2) They conducted focused research on one U.S. metropolitan area, San Francisco, where a clear attendance gap was measured in 1972. 3) Marler and Hadaway surveyed and counted church membership and attendance in one rural Ontario census district.